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Automatic Enforcement Methods: Overt versus Covert Speed Cameras and the Optimal Conditions to their Deployment

This stusy explored how drivers' behavior was effected by two different types of speed cameras, overt and covert, and compared two different types of feedback, immediate versus delayed. Participants took part in three sessions in a driving simulator that simulated  a route that alternated  between 50 and 90 kph speed limits. In Experiments 1 and 2, half of the participants drove on a route with overt speed cameras at 10 locations, while the other half drove a route in which speed was monitored with covert cameras in 10 locations. Thirty participants took part in Experiment 1. They received delayed feedback several days after each session in which they were notified their performance (the number of times they were "caught" by the cameras). Twent-eight participants took part in Experiment 2. They received immediate feedback (each time they were "caught" by the camera they heard a sound effect of a camera click). Both experiments indicated that an implementation strategy that combines covert speed cameras with immediate feedback to the offender seems to be the optimal way to motivate drivers to adhere to the speed limit. Therefore, in Experiment 3 feedback to the thirty participants was immediate and three combinations of overt and covert cameras were used. One condition incorporated eight overt cameras and two covert ones, the second condition used five overt  cameras and five covert ones,  and the third condition used two overt cameras and eight covert ones. The results of all three experiments showed  a correlation between the percentage of overt cameras and mean speed. The higher the percentage of covert cameras, the closest the mean speed was to the speed limit. In the condition in which only covert cameras were used, mean speed was closest to the speed limit and the speed variance was the smallest. We concluded  that 100% ose of covert cameras combined with immediate feedback is the most effective enforcement measureme for preventing drivers exceedind the speed limit


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